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TOEFL Question

Environmental Science

 The invention of automobiles in the 19th century had a profound effect on modern transportation. Further advancements in the automotive industry have led to the development of the electric car. Electric cars are able to function on electric power instead of gasoline fuel. The merits of the electric car have been debated since its invention. However, due to growing concerns about the environmental costs and economic sustainability of gasoline fuel, the electric car is being hailed as the best alternative available to consumers today.
 Most modern vehicles employ an internal combustion engine. In order to run, the fuel reacts with air in a small space and produces energy. When internal combustion engines first became popular, there was little concern for the negative effects they might have on the environment. Scientists have since learned that they produce gases and fumes that contribute to air pollution. There are also increasing concerns about the role of carbon dioxide emissions on global warming. Many feel that automobiles are a major cause of the problem. Electric cars are a good alternative to internal combustion engines. They do not directly produce any harmful emissions. According to a scientific study, electric cars reduce carbon dioxide emissions by as much as one hundred percent, especially if solar or wind power is the source of electrical energy.
 In addition, electrical cars are also better for the economy. They reduce dependence on petroleum, a non-renewable energy source that powers most internal combustion engines. As the world’s supplies of petroleum are depleted, it becomes increasingly expensive for consumers. The fluctuating price of petroleum can cause already unstable economies to collapse. In contrast, electric cars rely less on non-renewable energy sources. The increased use of electric cars lessens the importance of petroleum in the world economy. Moreover, since it is less expensive to produce electricity than gasoline, the cost of operating an electric car is more affordable for consumers.
 
Profound: in an extreme way
Merit: an advantage
Sustainability: the ability to be maintained
Fume: a harmful vapor or gas
Emission: a substance released into the air
Fluctuate: to change constantly
Collapse: to fail
 
 
 
 
 
Q.     The author discusses carbon dioxide emissions in order to
(A)   argue that electric cars better for the environment
(B)   note that they can positively impact the ozone layer
(C)   assert that electric cars do not help lower emissions
(D)   define how environmental standards are tested
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A>A
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