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TOEFL Question

The Roman Empire
 
 
The Roman Empire was one of the longest-lasting empires in history. It is often referred to when discussing great civilizations. It has been studied by numerous scholars, and many theories have been offered as to the reason why the Roman Empire fell in the year 476. One of these theories was proposed by anthropologist and historian Joseph Tainter. Tainter has a slightly different take on the fall of Roma, and attributes its decline to the central idea that societies collapse when they become too complex and can no longer sustain themselves.
 According to Tainter, the more problem a society is posed with, the more complex they become in trying to solve the problems. But problem-solving requires resources, such as human resources, to administer and oversee the solution. As a society tries to correct itself, it continues to deplete resources until the society collapses because it can no longer maintain itself.
To support this theory, Tainter points out how the Romans dealt with the problem of limited food. The problem originated because the Romans had begun to produce less food, but the population continued to increase. At this point, according to Tainter, the society began to become more complex. Their solution was to conquer slaves, or metal. In solving the problem, the Roman Empire grew more multifaceted, and the solution to the problem required the extended efforts of high Roman officials, soldiers, and bureaucratic officers. In Tainter’s view, the cost of solving the problem eventually caused an internal breakdown of the system. This was because the energy required to fine a remedy distracted from the energy required to deal with new problems, such as invasions.
 
 
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Empire: q group of countries ruled by a single person
Civilization: the state of developed human society with culture
Scholar: a person dedicated to studying a particular subject
Attribute: to believe to be a result of a cause
Monetary: relating to money
Finance: to pay for
Neighboring: next to
 
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Q.     Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 2?
Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
(A)   A society will collapse after it has exhausted all of its resources in attempts to correct problems.
(B)   When a society corrects itself, it is able to reduce its use of resources until it collapses.
(C)   A society that has fixed its problems cannot maintain itself without new resources.
(D)   The loss of resources is the main reason why societies cannot repair themselves.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A> (A)   A society will collapse after it has exhausted all of its resources in attempts to correct problems.

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