The massive oil spills that result from the sinking of collision of supertankers are devastation to the marine environment. The 1978 grounding of a supertanker, the Amoco Cadiz, poured 230,000 tons of crude oil along the coasts of Brittany, in northwestern France. In 1989 more than 35,000 tons of crude oil were spilled by the Exxon Valdez, damaging the unspoiled coasts of southern Alaska, the home of whales, sea otters, salmon, fish-eating bald eagles, and other wildlife. Accidents have prompted tighter restrictions, such as having double hulls, on the construction and operation of tankers.
Most of the components of oil are insoluble in water and float on the surface. They can be seen in most harbors as thin, iridescent slicks on the surface or as black deposits on sandy and rocky beaches. You would expect large areas of the ocean to be covered with the oil that has accumulated over the years. Fortunately, some of its lighter components evaporate, and bacteria ultimately break the oil down. Oil is said to be almost completely biodegradable because, though very slowly, it is broken down, or decomposed, by bacteria. Different marine communities, however, have different sensitivities to oil. For instance, it lasts much longer in salt marshes and mangrove forests.
Q. According to the passage, oil spills cause which of the following effects?
(A) They bring serious damage to the marine environment.
(B) They increase the number of bacteria living in the ocean.
(C) They significantly increase oil price for a short period.