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TOEFL Question

Baroque/Rococo
 
The Baroque period in Western architecture spanned the 17th century and first half of the 18th century. The Rococo style then emerged in the early 18th century as a reaction against Baroque excesses. However, it actually was a refinement of Baroque elements.
Four key elements identify Baroque architecture. First, buildings tended to be massive, creating a sense that their importance was larger than life. For example, places from the era were visual reminders of the power of the state, and impressive churches encouraged the faithful in their beliefs. Second, painting and sculpture combined with architecture to create a decorative Baroque unity. Sculpture, for instance, was bold and dramatic, like the buildings themselves. Third, to bring that same drama to the interior, Baroque architecture used vivid colors and luxurious materials of different textures. One example is the covering of church ceilings with brightly painted scenes. A fourth element was the design and decoration of the interior space. This offered a variety of views leading off the main visual axis of the building, usually leading from the entrance. Here, too, powerful sculpture and lighting effects were used to draw the eye to various parts of the interior. This was done so that the interior offered a series of dramatic and distinct visual experiences.
The Baroque style proved to be too robust for the more graceful tastes of the 18th century. In response, the Rococo style apart from Baroque , is better decoration was more delicate and subtle. By using smaller columns and continuous smooth surfaces in place of contrasting textures, Rococo buildings appeared less massive and imposing. While the integration of painting and sculpture with architecture remained important in Rococo design, Rococo sculptors preferred to work on a smaller, more intimate scale. Pastel tones replaced the vivid colors of the Baroque style, and mirrors were popular decorations. Graceful S-and C-shaped swirls and curves decorated walls and ceilings so much that critics attacked the style for its overuse of ornamental decorations. Windows were added to building designs to let in more light. This either softened the impression of the interior or created a dramatic effect. In general, through, interior space became more unified, rather than drawing the eye to various dramatic views.
 

 
 
Fill in the blanks to complete the summary.
There are four key elements of Baroque architecture. Buildings were massive. Architecture, painting, and sculpture worked together. The interior used bright colors and different materials, and there were dramatic views off the main visual __________. Baroque architecture was a(n) ________ of these elements. Its decoration was more delicate and ________. It also featured the _______of painting and sculpture with its architecture.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A> axis, robust, refinement, integration
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